The truth about peptides.

Peptides are small protein units that have very important biochemical as well as physiological functions within living systems – plant, animal and microorganism systems alike. To consider these proteins only in their capacity as cosmetic components would be to vastly underestimate one of nature’s most vital ingredients.

Peptide synthesisStudies have shown that they contribute significantly to a number of physiological processes, including the makeup of enzymes, receptors, hormones and some antibiotics, all of which have protein components. Enzymes have become key ingredients in the drug industry, for the treatment and therapeutic intervention for various diseases, including psychological conditions like depression.

Basic facts

The peptide is a small molecules – they can have as few as two amino acids. The types, physical and chemical properties of peptides vary – depending on the specific amino acids that they contain and how these amino acids are constituted. The maximum number is 50; above 50, the structures are considered full proteins. During the lifespan of human beings, various factors cause one to start aging, not just on the skin, but throughout the body. With this process, the body produces fewer retinoids which mean less collagen and elastin production, which is what causes thinning on the skin and eventual fine lining and wrinkling.

Characteristics

During specific synthesis, one amino acid carboxyl group (COOH) joins to the adjacent amino acids amino group (NH2). The carboxyl group loses its hydroxyl ion (OH-) and the amino group loses a hydrogen ion (H+), which combine to form a water molecule. Because of that, the process is known as dehydration.

This is what happens during protein formation in living things, but it can also be readily simulated in a laboratory set-up in mock biological conditions. There are only two ways for these to be synthesized in a lab: liquid phase and solid phase synthesis.

Uses

They are classified according to how they function in a living system.

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1. Hormones are responsible to intra-cellular and intercellular signal transfer to initiate specific reactions.

2. Alkaloids, which are found in shellfish, plant, and fungi, are defense molecules.

3. Antibiotics are small proteins designed to interfere with the way bacterial systems function, limiting their growth.

4. Neuropeptides are produced in nerve tissues and are important for signaling between cells located far apart from each other. Some industrially synthesized neuropeptides have been used to mimic the action of Botulinum neurotoxin (Botox) in the prevention of muscle contraction signals thereby relaxing the muscles. This is still under study, however.Checkout latest news and details at http://www.asianscientist.com/2016/11/in-the-lab/graphene-protein-bridge-bioelectronic-device/

5. Amino acids are important for cosmetology since they can relay a signal between the skin’s epidermal layer and the dermal layer. Age weakens the skin’s communications network, and help to make up for the deficit.

What Is GHRP-2?

GHRP-2 is short for growth hormone releasing peptide-2. GHRP-2 is a synthetic peptide consisting of just seven amino acids (D-Ala-D-(β-naphthyl)-Ala-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys). It is part of a series of compounds developed by Polygen (Germany) and Tulane University (United States) in an effort to create easily administered analogues of growth hormone releasing hormone1 . GHRP-2 is also known as GPA-748, pralmorelin, KP-102 D, DP-102 LN, DP-102D, and KP-102LN.

Effects of GHRP-2

GHRP-2 is a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. It is NOT an agonist of the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR), but rather is an agonist of the ghrelin receptor. As a GH secretagogue, GHRP-2 causes the release of growth hormone, which in turn causes the release of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and a host of other hormones. The major effects of stimulating growth hormone release include hyperplasia (growth in cell numbers) and hypertrophy (growth in cell size) in bone and skeletal muscle. Additional effects include improve function of heart muscle (cardiomyocytes), increased lipid metabolism (fat loss), and decreases in blood sugar (glucose).

By stimulating ghrelin receptors, How does GHRP-2 work? And, also acts as an appetite stimulant. Research in lean, healthy human males, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, found a 35.9% increase in appetite among subjects receiving GHRP-2 injections compared to saline injections2 . Ghrelin is a known appetite stimulant and has been found to regulate growth hormone secretion as well.

Clinical Applications

GHRP-2 is currently under investigation in Japan as a treatment for short stature. It is under investigation in the United States as a potential treatment for GH deficiency. Tulane University currently holds a patent, issued in October 2002, for protection of its series of synthesized GH-releasing peptides. The patent includes GHRP-2.

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A 2004 study on rats found that GHRP-2 does not have any significant side effects on nervous system, smooth muscles, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, or urinary system (kidneys). The hope is to eventually use GHRP-2 to both diagnose GH deficiency and treat short stature that results from GH deficiency3 . See detailed updates at http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160603005628/en/Growth-Hormone-Secretagogue-Receptor-Type-1-GHS-R

Resources

  1. Pralmorelin: GHRP 2, GPA 748, growth hormone-releasing peptide 2, KP-102 D, KP-102 LN, KP-102D, KP-102LN. Drugs RD5, 236-239 (2004).
  1. Laferrère, B., Abraham, C., Russell, C. D. & Bowers, C. Y. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide -2 (GHRP-2), like ghrelin, increases food intake in healthy men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.90, 611-614 (2005).
  1. Furuta, S. et al. General Pharmacology of KP-102 (GHRP-2), a Potent Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide. Arzneimittelforschung54, 868-880 (2011).